LAW NATIONAL ADMISSIONS TEST (LNAT)
What is the Law National Admissions Test?
The Law National Admissions Test, more commonly known as the LNAT, is a test used by universities to filter through potential candidates prior to accepting their admission. The LNAT is also often referred to as the National Admissions Test for Law.
The LNAT ultimately aids universities (who use this form of assessment as part of their selection process), to generate equitable and fairer choices amongst the many applicants who are highly-qualified, and wish to study within legal education.
It is not a test that you can simply sit down and revise for. It is a test that requires a mature understanding of social, technological, economical and cultural differences. Specific abilities and aptitudes need to be assessed in relation to the set skills and requirements essential to pursue an academic course in law. Fundamentally, it is a test of aptitude rather than of knowledge.
|The LNAT does:||The LNAT does not:|
|Test candidate's ability in regards to Verbal Reasoning;||Assess candidate's intelligence regarding the law;|
|Assess candidate's ability in Deductive and Inductive Reasoning skills;||Rely on candidate's knowledge and understanding obtained from previous education;|
|Evaluate candidate's ability in regards to understanding, interpreting and analysing large amounts of information;||Expect candidates to have prior knowledge to the topics used in the assessment;|
|Test candidate's ability to distinguish between inferences, generalisations, opinions and conclusions.||Guarantee a candidate's place at their chosen university.|
The aim of the LNAT
Foremost, the LNAT was designed so that universities are able to assess candidates prior to giving them acceptance on to the course. Candidates need to be able to show strong levels of a particular set of skills; skills required for law students which will hopefully go on to become a successful lawyer.
Fundamentally, we at how2become, have done our utmost to ensure you with the best preparation and guidance tool that will allow you to not only become familiar with the format of the test, but undergo similar to practice to the test itself.
As mentioned before, the Law National Admissions Test is a form of aptitude testing that is designed to determine whether law is the right career path for you.
What does the LNAT measure?
In order to complete an LNAT test, you will not be able to revise for the test as such. Instead, you will need to be able to demonstrate a particular set of skills and particular mind-set that is required to score highly on the test.
Predominantly, the LNAT combines strategic measurements and analytical approaches to assess your ability to understand and interpret information regarding current affairs. You will need to be able to illustrate your ability to interact with the following areas;
- Historical events.
The LNAT is used by certain universities to ensure that the students that they accept on to the course are 'able' students who show strong levels of progression. The test ultimately provides an in-depth evaluation of candidates and hopes to determine the strong candidates from those considered incapable of handling the demanding nature in which a law course entails. The LNAT measures a particular set of skills including:
- Analytical Ability;
- Reading Skills;
- Comprehensive Understandings;
- Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Skills;
- Verbal Skills;
- Strategic Approaches .
What does the LNAT consist of?
The LNAT will last for 2 hours and 15 minutes, during which you will have two sections to complete. The first section will comprise of 42 multiple-choice questions, based on 12 comprehensive passages. For each passage, it will contain 3 to 4 questions. For this part of the assessment, you will be given 1 hour and 35 minutes to complete all 42 questions.
The second part of the LNAT is in the style of an essay-based question. You will be given a choice of 3 questions, of which you must answer one. The essay will need to be typed and submitted in an electronic format. You will have 40 minutes in which to complete the essay.
Who is required to sit the LNAT?
You will be required to sit the LNAT, if the chosen university you have applied for is part of the LNAT Consortium. In other words, anyone who wishes to study an undergraduate law degree will need to take the assessment if the university that they are applying for, uses the test as part of their selection process.
The LNAT is a requirement for the following universities within the UK, EU and overseas:
University of Birmingham
University of Bristol
University of Glasgow
King's College London
The University of Nottingham
University of Oxford
SOAS University of London
University College London (UCL)
National University of Ireland (NUI), Maynooth
IE University (Spain)
Registering for the LNAT
In order to take the LNAT, you will be required to register online and fill in your application. Below, is a step-by-step guide illustrating the process of registering for the LNAT:
- Set up your online account: you will need to register an account via the following web address: www.lnat.ac.uk. You will need your UCAS identification number in order to register, however if you are registering before you are given your UCAS number, you will be able to continue with a 'fake' registration number which will need to be changed and updated as soon as your UCAS number arrives.
- Book your test: after you have registered an account, you will need to log on to your profile with the username and password that you provided when registering. You will then need to select the booking button, and proceed to make your confirmation. You will need to choose the LNAT venue that you wish to sit the day, and choose the date that you wish to attend the assessment.
- Making your payment: test fees are required to sit the LNAT. The cost for candidates to take the assessment is £50 for UK and EU testing centres, and £70 for a test centre outside of the EU. Details of the test centres can be found on the official LNAT website. You may be eligible for an LNAT Bursary if it is deemed that you are financially struggling. Be sure to check this out before submitting your application.
- Changing your booking: you are able to change your booking date, by rescheduling or cancelling your reservation. Tests need to be rescheduled before noon, two working days before the actual assessment if you wish to receive your payment back. Any cancellations after this time, will not receive their booking payment back.
Preparing for the LNAT
The LNAT requires a great deal of attention in regards to reading comprehension and critically analysing information. The best preparation for a test like this, is to simply practice sample papers, testing questions and improve the key skills and qualities being assessed. Becoming familiar will undoubtedly better your overall performance. Reading quality newspapers will allow you to think critically in regards to:
- Issues being addressed;
- The assumptions being made;
- Information that is relied upon in order to reach a conclusion;
- The position of the author;
- What the main argument is;
- Thinking of counter-arguments to challenge the argument.
Listed below are some of the newspapers that are worth reading:
|The Economist||The Financial Times||The Guardian|
|The Independent||The NY Times||The Times|
|The Daily Telegraph||The Washington Post||The Irish Times|
Sample LNAT Questions
You will be given a passage to read. You need to make sure to read the passage carefully in order to answer the questions that follow. A sample passage below is on the distorted views of the media:
2. The Distorted Views of the Media
The myriad landscape of the media infiltrates every inch of the social world, and can be accessed almost anywhere, by anyone. The media has changed considerably over the years, from information reported through newspapers and television, to a world that is transfixed with the realms of online access. It highlights the major growths in how the world communicates, and how these modes of communications have changed considerably over time.
How then, can we be sure to trust the channels which we are single-handedly presented, and offer only a single form of interpretation? What is the quality of the information that we are receiving? Does media focus on quantity more than assuring quality? Ultimately, it is not so much about where the information comes from, but the extent to which these mediums produce reliable and partial accounts of news.
Media have become somewhat slanted in recent years, and no matter what the medium, the information that they create and produce can be, and is often, challenged. Criticisms in regards to the fabrications of distortion, manipulation and interpretation, suggests how publishers and distributors are more concerned with maintaining and accumulating circulation figures, as opposed to being centred on truth, justice and value. The fabrication of beauty and body image is a major issue that is often portrayed within an array of media formats. It continues to stir debate regarding how such images carry inaccurate and biased accounts of the truth, particularly in regards to women.
You will then be given 3 or 4 questions regarding that passage. Note, the questions are in the style of interpretative, stylistic and argumentative questions. They are used to determine how well you can interpret information, make conclusions and assumptions, and understand the overall argument in which an author or authors, are trying to make.
So, after you read the passage, you will be given a multiple choice question like so:
Within the third paragraph, the writer assumes that…
A – Newspapers are the foundation of distorted imagery.
B – Publishers of newspapers are the people who decide what gets printed in their paper.
C – Newspapers continue to adopt a writing style that is based on bias and controversy.
D – Distorted imagery cannot be avoided.
E – The media are responsible for the social issues in which girls face regarding body image.
You will then need to determine which of the answers best describes the author's assumptions. Please note, that these questions are designed so that the answers are very similar. You need to pay careful attention to the use of words and language in the answers to determine how accurate the answer is.
B = 'Publishers of newspapers are the people who decide what gets printed in their paper'.
EXPLANATION = the writer concludes from the passage that publishers focus on the importance of increasing their newspaper circulation, rather than maintaining efforts in regards to producing truthful and unbiased content. In order for the writer to come to this conclusion, the writer needs to assume that the publishers of the newspapers are the people in which decide what gets printed.
4. The Threats of Social Networking
Social networking has unquestionably become a global phenomenon, which I believe is having a huge effect on our social world. Social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter have experienced exponential growth during the 21st century, and yet some users remain oblivious to how much their social networking profiles can shape, influence and affect their everyday lives.
Information that is posted on these sites is likely to come back and haunt a person in the future. Just think of a social networking site as a type of "global database". You are posting information, facts about yourself, images etc, into your very own "database"; acting as a log of your personal behaviour for others to view. This is a great concern for many parents whereby they feel obliged to check how secure their child is whilst they're online.
An example of the impact of social networking occurred in America, whereby students were faced with court charges for underage drinking, a situation that had it not been shared on their social networking profiles, would never have been known otherwise. The students in question were unaware of the impact of their behaviour of underage drinking and posting the evidence online.
Furthermore, employers often use these sites as a way of maintaining access to their employees outside of the working environment. Although this can be considered morally wrong, employers can track your profile in order to find controversial issues, sensitive matters or inappropriate misconduct.
Which of the following best describes the author's tone in regards to his attitude about social networking sites?
A - Strongly pessimistic
B – Discouraged.
C – Guarded.
D – Upset.
E – Highly optimistic.
C = 'Guarded'.
EXPLANATION = the word that would best describe the tone of the author's writing in relation to his attitude concerning social networking is "guarded". The author offers very "guarded" responses in association with the importance of security for social networking sites. Answer options A and E are quite extreme, and the fact that the author is not overly extreme or assertive in his responses, suggests that these words cannot depict his overall tone of writing. Answer option D, 'upset', is not a word that best describes his attitudes; the author shows more of a concern then he does an upset, and therefore does not reflect his tone of voice. Answer option B, 'discouraged', does not reflect the overall tone of the author. This term is used to illustrate melancholy or somewhat disheartened, but the overall tone of the author does not come across as disheartened.
During the essay section of the LNAT assessment, you will be given 3 questions in which you must choose one to write your essay on. These questions are usually based on current affairs, common debate topics, which allow you to voice your opinion and argue your reasoning using support, evidence and justifications.
Answer one of the following questions.
Your answer should be a reasoned and substantiated argument, which justifies your response to the question that you have chosen
You have 40 minutes in which to draft and write your answer to one essay question.
1. "Euthanasia should be legal". Discuss.
2. Should the death penalty be allowed?
3. "Violent games contribute to youth violence". Argue.
You will then to plan and write your answer to one of the above questions. You should structure your essay like indicated below:
INTRODUCTION. The introduction will be the first thing the reader will look at, and so it is important to make a clear and concise overview of what your essay is going to be about.
Your introduction should include the purpose of the essay, what your initial thoughts may be, what you hope to achieve/find, enumerate the points you wish to make, and define the overall importance of your argument and why it is relevant/significant.
MAIN BODY. During the main body of your essay, you should remember to keep in mind the questions mentioned previously in regards to what, why, how and what if.
You need to make points and back them up using examples and evidence in order to strengthen your overall argument. There is no point making a statement, if you have nothing to back up the reasoning for it. Your argument needs to be straight to the point, persuasive and significant to illustrate what you are trying to say.
Usually, 3-4 high quality points is enough to make a good argument. Do not waffle. Expand on a few points and provide analysis and detail, as opposed to briefly mentioning lots of points and not going into enough detail about each of them. Your essay needs to read coherently.
CONCLUSION. Your conclusion should summarise your whole argument. It is often said that a reader should be able to read an introduction and a conclusion, and still have a basic understanding of what your argument would be about.
Your conclusion should not introduce any new points, and should only sum up the points that you have written about previously.
The conclusion should be short, to the point and significant. If you can summarise your argument using three to four sentences, your reader will be impressed and know what you were trying to achieve.
Make sure that your conclusion refers back to the question you were given. Make sure that the question has been answered directly, and demonstrate where you stand on the subject matter.
We have provided you with key areas that you could include in this argument:
Dignity. Within a civilized society, it is argued that an individual should be able to die in a dignified and peaceful way, instead of waiting out for a disease to kill them, or become so inflicted with pain, that it is too much to bare.
Bodies are our own. It can also be argued that it is up to us with what we decide to do with our bodies. Our bodies are our own. We are allowed to make all kinds of decisions based on our body. For example, getting tattoos, piercings, having a baby, getting a transplant, getting plastic surgery etc, thus we too should be able to decide when our body has had enough and therefore can no longer prolong living.
Beliefs. Some people believe that suicide is not a crime. People commit suicide and no crime has been committed, and no one was in the wrong. Therefore, euthanasia should also not be a crime. The only difference between the two is that euthanasia usually requires the assistance of someone else. The assisted help from someone willing to let a person die ultimately fulfils a dying person's wishes.
Changing attitudes. According to a study conducted in 2007, 80% of the public said that they wanted the law to change regarding assisted suicide and helping those to end their life.
Answer one of the following questions.
Your answer should be a reasoned and substantiated argument, which justifies your response to the question that you have chosen.
You have 40 minutes in which to draft and write your answer to one essay question.
1. What is equality? Does it really matter?
2. Make the best case for Government funding the arts programmes.
3. Why does 'political correctness' matter?
Defining equality. Equality is about ensuring that every individual within every society has an equal opportunity. Equal opportunities include the rights to work, female and male equal rights, reduce discriminations in relation to sex, gender, race, religion, disabilities etc. Equality is a way of maintaining a standardised message within culture that opportunities need to be distributed equally, and not seen to benefit someone of particular interest.
History of equality.. Within your essay, you could explain the history of equality, and how previous years have demonstrated a lack of equality amongst society, and how this has changed and evolved over time. Within contemporary society, we live in a world that is regulated and imposed with rules that prevent inequalities. However, you could argue that whilst regulations remain in place, inequality does still remain, and probably always will. Give an example of how people can challenge the current zeitgeist of society in relation to equality.
Significance. This is the second part of the question that you need to answer in order to gain high marks. You need to discuss the importance of equality and how this is important to culture. Inclusion, equality and opportunities are a central principle to build community capacity. Society needs a healthy and stable workforce and create citizens who conform to the rules and regulations of society. What is the importance of equality in relation to democratic societies?
The Law National Admissions Test
If you are serious about studying law, it is important to give yourself the best possible chance, and here at how2become, we have done everything to ensure you a guide that will not disappoint! A guide that will provide you with all the details you need to know regarding the LNAT, including: what it is, why you need to take it, where do you take it, how much it costs, how to apply and other useful information. Not only that, we have created sample questions that demonstrate the styles of questions that you are likely to face in the assessment.
This guide will help you to:
- Demonstrate the ability to differentiate between inferences, abstractions, assumptions and generalisations by applying logical and critical analysis;
- Demonstrate high levels of critical thinking and logical understanding;
- Demonstrate high levels of reasoning and interpretation;
- Evaluate arguments and the position in which the author upholds;
- Focus on sufficient evidence to generate adequate support and justification;
- Analyse information to draw conclusions.
- Demonstrate writing ability in the style of an essay-based question, which will require critical analysis, persuasive writing and detailed points of view.
LAW NATIONAL ADMISSIONS TEST (LNAT)
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